Obese people who can’t deal with their problem by using motivation tips, fat burning pills or fat loss diet, are forced to resort to more serious methods of treatment. These methods belong to the so-called bariatric surgery. In this article, we will review TOP 5 popular surgeries for weight loss.
Weight loss surgery types – choose yours one
The TOP 5 popular surgeries for weight loss are:
- gastric bypass;
- gastric banding;
- gastric sleeve;
- duodenal switch;
- electric implant.
There are other weight loss surgery options (types), such as laparoscopic gastric plication, but they aren’t much popular.
Gastric bypass surgical intervention is the most common and probably the best anti-obesity surgical operation in the world. It has been used for approximately 50 years.
The essence of the gastric bypass lies in is that the stomach is stitched with clips into two sections:
- a small stomach, about 50 ml in volume;
- a large gaster (the rest).
A small bowel is sewn to the small gaster (the point of connection of the stomach & small bowel is called gastroenteroanastomosis or simply anastomosis). Since the volume of a small stomach is only 50 ml, a person after this operation cannot eat a lot of food, he gains a very small amount. Over time, this bag will “stretch” a bit. Six months after the surgery, it will be able to hold about 120-150 ml, which allows a patient to eat about 1200 kcal.
In addition, food, eaten by a patient, now moves along a new path, without getting into the big stomach and most part of the small intestine. This means that not only the amount of food eaten decreases, but also the absorption of nutrients is significantly reduced.
Thus, the combination of two factors – a reduction of the amount of food eaten and a decrease in the absorption of nutrients leads to the fact that a patient loses up to 80% of excess weight.
This weight loss surgery is the “gold standard” in the treatment of severe obesity, along with gastric banding. However, it can cause several complications:
- instability of gastroenteroanastomosis leading to abscesses and infections occurrence;
- forming of blood clots during the procedure;
- deficiency of vitamins and nutrients;
- gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
- formation of stones in the gallbladder, etc.
Gastric banding procedure
During the gastric banding procedure, an adjustable ring is put around the upper part of the stomach, which takes the form of an hourglass. A small stomach located above the ring has a volume of only 10-15 ml. It is enough for the patient to eat just one tablespoon of food so that it fills the small stomach. The wall of the organ in this place is stretched, and the saturation receptors begin to send a signal about saturation to the brain. Thus, a patient simply cannot and does not want to eat a lot of food, and naturally, he/she begins to lose weight. It’s a great way to burn belly fat and fat all over the body. Surgery for the application of an adjustable restrictive ring is now very popular in the world, especially in Europe.
The procedure is based on a restrictive principle, i.e. on narrowing the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract to limit the intake of food. The essence of this surgical intervention is the formation of an extended narrow gastric “sleeve” to impede the passage of solid food in the area from the esophagus to the antrum (terminal part) of the stomach. This surgery is quite an effective method of surgical treatment of overweight.
It is one of weight loss surgery options, which is used mainly in patients with very serious obesity, although there are surgeons who carry out it constantly. The basis of the operation is the principle of malabsorption, that is, reducing the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. During the surgery, a doctor removes about 70% of the stomach and most of the duodenum. Due to the reconstruction of the intestine, the length of the small intestine involved in digestion significantly decreases. Bile along with pancreatic juice are diverted to the end of the small intestine, thus reducing the amount of fat absorbed. It is very effective, but has a lot of adverse effects.
The electric implant is a new least invasive weight loss surgery that was approved by the US FDA in 2015. During this relatively simple procedure, the so-called Maestro Rechargeable System is used. This device consists of a rechargeable battery and an implant placed in the wall of the stomach in the part where the vagus nerve passes. The device produces a weak electrical impulse of a certain frequency, which allows you to block signals from the stomach to the brain and leads to suppression of appetite.
The Maestro Rechargeable System was successfully tested on 233 volunteers who were obese. According to the findings, a year after the introduction of the electronic implant, 157 study participants lost 24 percent of their weight, while the volunteers in the control group, who were placed with non-functioning devices as placebo, decreased body weight by only 16 per cent. The system is approved for obese male & female persons (BMI 35 to 45), over the age of 18 (that is, the surgery is not suitable for teens), who could not lose weight using standard weight loss programs. The cost of the device starts from 15 000 US dollars.